Discussion of design decisions

On this page, we discuss some of the design decisions that we made. This should explain why some features are (not) present and why they work the way that they work.


For the sake of readability, some concepts are simplified in the following sections. For example, the snippet connect(A, B) means we’e connecting some entities of a simulator A to some entities of simulator B; simulator and entity are used as if they were the same concept; A.step() means, that mosaik calls the step() function of simulator/entity A.

Circular data-flows

Circular data-flows were one of the harder problems to solve.

When you connect the entities of two simulators with each other, mosaik tracks the new dependency between these simulators:

connect(A, B)

A would now provide input data for B. When mosaik runs the simulation, the step for a certain time t would first be computed for A and then for B with the inputs of A.

In order to connect control strategies (like multi-agent systems) with to-be-controlled entities, you usually need a circular data-flow. The entity provides state information for the controller which in turn sends new commands or schedules to the controlled entity. The naïve way of doing this would be:

connect(A, B, 'state')
connect(B, A, 'schedule')

A would receive schedules via the inputs of A.step(). In A.step(), it would compute new state information which mosaik would get via A.get_data(). Mosaik would forward this to the inputs of B.step(). B.step() would calculate some schedules, which mosaik would again get via B.get_data() and pass to A.step()

The question that arise here is: Which simulator do we step first – A or B? Mosaik has no clue. You could say that A needs to step first, because the data-flow from A to B was established first. However, if you re-arrange your code and (accidentally) flip both lines, you would get a different behavior and a very hard to find bug.

What do we learn from that? We need to explicitly tell mosaik how to resolve these cycles and prohibit normal circular data-flows as in the snippet above.

If you remember mosaik 1, your next approach would be as follows:

connect(A, B, 'state')
connect(B, A, 'schedule', delay=True)

This would tell mosaik how to resolve the cycle and throw an error if you accidentally flip both lines.

Theoretically, we could be done here. But we aren’t. The data-flows in the example above are passive, meaning that A and B compute data hoping that someone will use them. This abstraction works reasonably well for normal simulation models, but control mechanism usually have an active roll. They actively decide whether or not to send commands to the entities they control.

Accordingly, mosaik provides ways for control mechanisms and monitoring tools to actively collect more data from the simulation and set data to other entities. These means are implemented as asyncronous requests that a simulator can perform during its step. Similar to the cyclic data-flows, this requires you to tell mosaik about it to prevent some scheduling problems:

connect(A, B, async_requests=True)

This prevents A from stepping too far into the future so that B can get additional data from or set new data to A in B.step().

Since you can set data via an asynchronous request, you can implement cyclic data-flows with it:

connect(A, B, 'state', async_requests=True)

The implementation of A.step() and A.get_data() would be the same. In B.step() you would still receive the state information from A and compute the schedules. However, you wouldn’t store them somewhere so that B.get_data() can return them. Instead, you would just pass them actively to set_data(). Mosaik stores that data in the same buffer in which it would store data that it retrieved via B.get_data().

So to wrap this up, there would be two possibilities to achieve cyclic data-flows:

  1. Passive controller:

    connect(A, B, 'state')
    connect(B, A, 'schedules', delay=True)

    B.step() computes schedules and caches them somewhere. Mosaik gets these schedules via B.get_data() and sends them to A.

    If you forget to set the delay=True flag, mosaik will raise an error at composition time.

    If you forget the second connect(), nothing will happen with the schedules. You may not notice this for a while.

  2. Active controller:

    connect(A, B, 'state', async_requests=True)

    B.step() computes schedules and immediately passes them to set_data(). Mosaik sends them to A.

    If you forget to set the async_requests=True flag, mosaik will raise an error at simulation time.

So, two ways to achieve basically the same thing. What does the Zen of Python say to this?

“There should be one– and preferably only one –obvious way to do it.”

Since the asynchronous requests can be used for other purposes as well and thus, cannot simply be stripped away, we chose the second way and excluded the first possibility.